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Category: publications

Interactions between Service and Product Lifecycle Management

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Authors: Stefan Wiesner, Mike Freitag, Ingo Westphal, Klaus-Dieter Thoben
7th CIRP conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPSS), (BIBA, Fraunhofer), 21-22/05/2015, St. Etienne, France

The adoption of advanced manufacturing intelligence technologies requires managing the interaction of information in Product-Service Systems (PSS) by combining Product (PLM) and Service Lifecycle Management (SLM). While up to now no sound methodology exists, there is a strong need to have bi-directional coordination and interaction between PLM and SLM in a systematic way. A further challenge is to close loops, for example feedback from service delivery to the beginning-of-life phase of products. The objective of this paper is therefore to identify the interactions between SLM and PLM in manufacturing firms, based on expert interviews and illustrated in PSS use cases.

Date of publication: 22/05/2015

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Integrating Gamification in Mechanical Engineering Systems to support Knowledge Processes

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Authors: Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge, Ioana Andreea Stănescu, Maira B. Carvahlo, Antoniu Stefan, Marian Banica, Theodore Lim
ASME 2015 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference IDETC/CIE 2015 (BIBA), 02-05/08/2015, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Rapid technological changes have a large influence in the field of engineering systems. However, just being fast is not sufficient; additionally, the system has to be user-friendly, flexible and cost effective. Serious Games (SG), as fast-paced, immersive, interactive media, have not only become popular in various learning and training environments, including engineering, but there are also several examples on how game-based mechanisms can be used to enhance User Experience (UX) and performance. So far, gamification of Mechanical Engineering Systems (MES) have not reached their full potential, due to the fact that gamification efforts are costly, time consuming to develop, and require the constant involvement of MES developers even for small changes. Furthermore, its adaption to MES requires specific knowledge in game design and development. Thus, as demand for user friendlier, intuitive interfaces increases, there is also a need for support tools that enable access to design and development of gamification mechanisms for non-SG professionals. In this context, the authors discuss the creation of a library of User Interface (UI) automation tools that enables gamification and through which tutors can create interactive learning scenarios to guide users through the functionalities of engineering systems. Such tools have the potential to support knowledge processes, respectively knowledge experiencing, conceptualizing, analyzing and applying, in engineering environments.

Date of publication: 04/08/2015

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Challenges for Requirements Engineering of Cyber-Physical Systems in Distributed Environments

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Authors: Stefan Wiesner, Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge, Klaus-Dieter Thoben
IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2015 (BIBA), 07-09/09/2015, Tokyo, Japan (WP2)

Engineering of systems is highly influenced by rapid technological changes, such as the emergence of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). These are interconnected embedded systems enabled by human-machine interaction. Realisation of CPS require a collaboration between mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer science since different components are delivered and developed by different disciplines. Consequently, the Requirements Engineering (RE) process needs to consider multi-disciplinary perspectives. The objective of this paper is to elaborate the specific challenges of RE for CPS in a distributed environment and to identify knowledge sources and targets in CPS engineering. It describes the relevant types of knowledge and defines appropriate exchange mechanisms and standards.

Date of publication: 18/08/2015

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Visualization of Interactions Between Product and Service Lifecycle Management

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Authors: Ingo Westphal, Mike Freitag, Klaus-Dieter Thoben
IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2015 (Fraunhofer, BIBA), 07-09/09/2015, Tokyo, Japan (WP4-5) – Best Paper Award

The adoption of advanced manufacturing intelligence technologies offers opportunities for new profitable business models. The basis for this is the data that is related to the manufactured product, the physical components used for the manufacturing and the services that are applied in this context. In such a Product-Service System (PSS) there are several interactions and corresponding dependencies between physical products and services that have to be managed to obtain an optimal added value from the PSS. A first step is to make the informational interactions between Product and Service Lifecycle Management (PLM and SLM) transparent and visualize them. The objective of this paper is therefore to identify and visualize the interactions between SLM and PLM in general and as a subsequent step in a use case of a manufacturing enterprise.

Visualization of Interactions Between Product and Service Lifecycle Management

Date of publication: 18/08/2015

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Challenges for Requirements Engineering of Cyber-Physical Systems in Distributed Environments

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Authors: Stefan Wiesner, Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge, Klaus-Dieter Thoben
IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2015 (BIBA), 07-09/09/2015, Tokyo, Japan

Engineering of systems is highly influenced by rapid technological changes, such as the emergence of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). These are interconnected embedded systems enabled by human-machine interaction. Realisation of CPS require a collaboration between mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer science since different components are delivered and developed by different disciplines. Consequently, the Requirements Engineering (RE) process needs to consider multi-disciplinary perspectives. The objective of this paper is to elaborate the specific challenges of RE for CPS in a distributed environment and to identify knowledge sources and targets in CPS engineering. It describes the relevant types of knowledge and defines appropriate exchange mechanisms and standards.

Date of publication: 18/08/2015

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The Interplay Between Product-Services and Social Sustainability: Exploring the Value Along the Lifecycle

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Authors: Paola Fantini, David Opresnik, Marta Pinzone, and Marco Taisch
IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2015 (Polimi), 07-09/09/2015, Tokyo, Japan

Our understanding of the interplay between product-services and social sustainability is still very limited. This paper sheds light on the interconnections between social sustainability and product-services throughout their life-cycle, and identifies a set of common topics and practices to be investigated by experts of Advances in Production Management Systems. In doing so, the paper sets the stage for future efforts aimed at exploiting the opportunities identified and exploring new synergies between product-services and social sustainability.

Date of publication: 18/08/2015

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Product-Service Design Structure Matrix: A method to synchronize developing processes

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Authors: Mike Freitag; Martin Zelm; Oliver Hämmerle
I-ESA’16 Conference (Fraunhofer), 31/03-01/04/2016, Guimarães, Portugal

This paper presents the background and the challenges for manufacturing companies that want to servitize their business by combining their products with services. One important challenge from the developer’s perspective hereby is to combine Product Lifecycle Management and Service Lifecycle Management approaches to support the lifecycle of integrated Product-Service Systems (PSS). The paper is focusing on the definition and visualization of the interactions in the design phase of a Product Service System. The method of the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) has been adopted for a Product Service System.  The proposed integration of product and service design provides a definition of high high level activities for developers, which can be regarded as a first step towards an integrated PSS lifecycle management.

Overview about Service Labs worldwide: Approaches, Methods and Use Cases to test Service across Lifecycle

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Authors: Mike Freitag; Oliver Hämmerle, Stefan Wiesner
CIRP IPSS Conference (Fraunhofer), 20-21/06/2016, Bergamo, Italy

As product-service systems are very complex, an integrated approach how to test a service is needed. The paper provides a framework for the development and testing of new services, and thereby grants a lot of space and tools for service innovation. In product-service-systems different types of resources are involved, for instance people, technology, information and organization. In the framework provided by mixed reality laboratory environments, all of these resources are brought together as well.

The resources people, technology, information and organization are integrated. The interdisciplinary knowledge concerning these relevant resources is merged in the laboratory environments. Furthermore mixed reality laboratory environments are unifying academic expertise and practical, business-driven interests. Since service relevance in manufacturing companies is growing, the testing of new service concepts gets more important. Various methods are available, which help to verify service concepts. Due to this, the focus of this paper is on the analysis of established Service and Innovation Labs worldwide. To give an overview 24 Service labs are identified and analysed.

Date of publication: 2016

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Engaging ontologies to break MBSE tools boundaries through semantic mediation

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Author: Uri Shani, Shmuela Jacobs, Niva Wengrowicz, Dov Dori
CSER’16 conference (IBM) March 22-24, 2016 Huntsville, AL United States

We introduce ontologies (as in the Semantic Web ontology language OWL) to serve as formal description of the modelling languages of model-based systems engineering (MBSE) tools. In these tools, systems are designed via abstractions, each tool with its own conceptual modelling languages having different syntaxes and different semantics. This creates barriers in sharing these mathematical models among the tools. Our journey starts with the web, where large amounts of information from any sources on the Web can be linked and combined in many ways. The Semantic Web added meaning through OWL ontologies to the information in web pages so machines could better process information to enhance users’ experience.  The field of MBSE offers a great many different tools to the engineer, each representing the system under design or a view of that system albeit mathematically, but differently so that sharing a model from one tool with another is impossible, or darn difficult and error prone.

This problem is often classified as “tools interoperability”, but it is primarily a language interoperability problem. The Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) specifications and initiative brought the Semantic Web technologies into MBSE by introducing Resource Description Framework (RDF) for common model representation, RESTful protocols, as a common communication and data exchange method, and enabling the linking of model elements in the different tools that are used for product lifecycle management (PLM).. The semantic mediation container (SMC) is a platform developed by IBM Research as part of EU projects (SPRINT, DANSE and now PSYMBIOSYS) to support the mediation of models represented in RDF and exchanged over the Internet using RESTful API. SMC extends the benefits of the OSLC approach by adding semantics using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) specifications to define language ontologies. Each tool exchange models with the SMC platform, where models are constructed according to specific ontologies (in OWL) per each of the tools. Models can then be mediated to comply with different ontologies.

The rules governing the mediation are also coded as OWL ontologies that bridge two different ontologies and are interpreted by a mediator. Bridging is a form of transformation, or an inference over the statements of the 3 involved ontologies, and those of the input RDF model, all driven by a mediation engine we term mediator. In this paper we introduce the first stages of mediation as applied to two different modeling tools; Rhapsody that implements the OMG standard SysML specification, and OPCAT – the OPM CASE tool implementing the Object-Model Methodology (OPM) which is an emerging ISO 19450 standard.

Date of publication: 2016

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