The PSYMBIOSYS concept is based on a holistic and unifying collaboration concept (the symbiosis) implemented through a five-pointed star symbolizing the following 5 main dichotomies we have identified in product-service design. The 5 main dichotomies or tussles which are currently preventing service innovation to be pervasively adopted by all EU manufacturing industries, SMEs included:
A final fundamental tussle is concerned with the most suitable collaboration form where to implement product-service innovation in manufacturing industries. It is undoubted that manufacturing enterprises must collaborate to better innovate, but how? Digital Business Ecosystems have been deeply studied since the beginning of FP7 in several ICT and FoF projects and the conclusion is that, although it is a very fascinating and appealing concept at macro-economic level, when put to the earth of regional and local supply networks you recognise that the governance of your system cannot be based on the Darwin’s law, that it is just the fittest species which survive. This “your death is my life” principle or the fact that just a certain small percentage of the species will survive is perhaps acceptable in the long term and at a macro worldwide level, but cannot be the only rule when governing product-service design value chains with diverse stakeholders and variegated objectives. So there is a basic question: Which is the most suitable collaboration form in product-service design which will favour the reduction of the above tussles and finally implement a win-win situation for all the stakeholders involved?